Cotton Yarn Dyeing

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Product Code N.A.
Quality and Standards As per IS 1670 :1970
IS 1671:1977
IS 8014 :1983
Uploaded on July 2007


The art of dyeing is a branch of applied chemistry in which a use of both physical and chemical principle is made in order to bring about a permanent Union between the dyes and the textile material. For dyeing the cotton yarn in various shades, the art lies in colouring the textiles in such a manner that the colour may be fast or may not ordinarily be removed by such operations as working, rubbing, sunlight etc. to which the textiles are usually subjected. The dyeing can only take place when the dyeing is in solution/or finely divided or dispersed condition and the fibres are subjected to this dye in solution condition and then this dye being rendered insoluble or fixed by same means. There must exist same marked physico-chemical affinity between the fibres and the dye, which would naturally depend upon the respective properties of both. The dyed cotton yarn is used in the following fields.

  • Ready-made garments
  • Hosiery industries
  • Bag closing industry
  • Sports goods
  • Umbrella and carpet making
  • Book binding
  • Handloom textiles
  • Furnishing textiles

Market Potential

Despite the marked inroads of synthetic fibres into the textile industry, cotton continues as a major textile fibre. At present, cotton constitutes 78 percent of the total fibre consumed by the textile industries. There is demand for cotton dyeing units as the consumption of cotton textiles has increased. The proposed purchase grey yarn from the mills and can be dyed and sold in the market. There is also possibility to take up the job work from the mills and dye the yarn on as per their requirement. Since there are large number of textile mills in Maharashtra state there would not be any problem in getting sufficient work for such type of units. Besides this there is good scope for exporting the dyed yarn to foreign countries.

Basis and Presumptions

  • The project profile has been prepared on the basis of single shift of 8 hours each day, 25 days in a month and at 75% efficiency.
  • It is presumed that in the 1st year the capacity utilisation will be 70% followed by 85% in the next year and 100% in the subsequent years.
  • The rates quoted in respect of salaries and wages for skilled workers and others are the minimum rates in the State/ neighbouring states.
  • Interest rate for fixed and working capital has been taken @ 14% on an average, whether financed by bankers or by financial corporation.
  • Margin money required is minimum 30% of the projected investment.
  • Pay Back period of the project : After the initial gestation period of one and a half years, it will require 5 years to pay back the loans.
  • The building/workshed is considered of its own
  • The rates quoted in respect of machines, equipment and raw materials are those prevailing at the time of preparation of this project profile, and are likely to vary from supplier to supplier and place to place. When a tailor made project profile is prepared necessary changes are to be made.
  • Working capital for 2 months has been taken into consideration for smooth running of the project.

Implementation Schedule



Preparation of Project Report
Calling quotations

1 Month
2 Weeks
Provisional Registration as SSI 1 week
Financial Arrangement 3 months
Purchase and procurement of machinery 2 Months
Installation of Machines 1 month
Electrification 1 month
Recruitment of Staff and Workers. 1 months

Technical Aspects

Process of Manufacture

The most popularly used colours for cotton dyeing are Aurammic G. victoria blue, brilliant green crystals, rhodamine yellow G, rhodamine dye blue, melachite green etc. The class of dye used depends on the end use, colour and shade required, quality desired and the process adopted. However direct, reactive and mordant dyes are the most common classes of dyes used in the industry. The grey yarn which may be in the form of hand or solution to penetrate in the yarn. These soft cheeses are creeled on to stand and then loaded in to the machine chamber. Then the dye bath is prepared containing the requisite amount of dyestuff and other chemicals like alum, soda etc. The yarn packages are subjected to high temperature high pressure dyeing for 30 minutes to 1½ hour. The packages are removed from the chamber, excess dye solution is washed and finally dried. The different methods practiced in the industry are given below :

Process flow diagram for Dyed cotton yarn
Cotton Yarn
Winding on soft package
Winding or reeling
Quality control

Quality Control and Standards

There is no standard specification formulated for cotton knitted cloth. The quality of knitted fabric mainly depends on raw material quality, therefore quality yarn must be used for the manufacture of knitted cloth. Hosiery yarn should be purchased from reputed spinning mills only. Spare parts should be kept ready for immediate replacement in order to maintain the targets.
IS 1670 : 1970
IS 1671 : 1977
IS 8014 : 1983

Production Capacity (per annum)

Quantity: 2000 Kgs. per day or
6,00,000 Kgs.Value (Rs.)
Value : Rs. 324. lakhs processing

Motive Power

A total of 50 kW or 70 HP power is required to run at full capacity and this can be drawn from state electricity boards.

Pollution Control

In the textile dyeing industry, considerable amount of polluted water is discharged from which harmful chemicals should be neutralised before leaving them into the drainage system. The use of various toxic chemicals and chemical based dyes may be avoided/reduced. The units should not use rice-husk and rubberised material as a fuel in dyeing unit. The smoke of this is very harmful for the human beings. This type of unit should only be started in an area where the common effluent plant facilities are available or the unit installed this type of facilities in the unit's premises to avoid any health hazards.

Energy conservation

Another important international aspect of the recent period is energy conservation. The energy conservation will make the industries to reduce their production costs and thereby stay more competitive in the market. This matter should be the concern of every person involved in the day to day operations of any industry. Idle running of various machines, heaters, boilers, lights, fans, air conditioners etc. Should be completely avoided. Suitable capacitors and energy saving devices should be incorporated wherever possible to minimise the wastage of energy. Steam should not be wasted and sufficient insulation should be provided to the dye chamber.

Financial Aspects

Financial Aspects

Land and Building (Rented) (per month)

Builtup / Covered area 1,500 sq. mt.
Open/Un-covered area 900 sq. mt.
Total area required 2,400 sq. mtrs.
Average charges @ 2000/ sq. mtrs. 4800000

Machinery and Equipments



Amount (Rs.)

200 Kgs Cap HTHP Yarn Dyeing machine with automation S.S. stock tank 200 kgs capacity open machine type Rapid ADLT Driver and 4 S.S. cheese carries 1No. 4060000
Steam Boiler 2 tonnes capacity with water softening plant for boiler 1No. 980000
Electric Hoist 2 tonne capacity 1No. 100000
Laboratory Beaker Dyeing plant 1No. 55000
Process water softening plant and effluent treatment plant 1No. 1500000
Package winding machine 1No. 1210000
Rewinding machine 1No. 1040000
Stainless Steal Dye and springs (1500 Nos.)   150000
Water storage tanks (Civil construction) Cap. 80,000 litres each 2 No. 450000
M.S. Tanks Cap: 4 MT. 2 No. 190000
D.G. Set 200 kVA 1No. 590000
Lab and testing equipment   100000
Rewinding machine 1No. 1040000
Process control and instrumentation equipment   100000
Miscellaneous equipment   100000
Total 10625000

Other Fixed Assets

Amount (Rs.)

Insurance, Transport, erection cost of pipelines and cables etc. 160000
Electrification and wiring 200000
Office furniture 100000
Pre-operative expenses 100000
Total 560000
Total Fixed Capital 15985000

Working Capital (per month)

Staff and labour Wages



Salary (Rs.)

Amount (Rs.)

Marketing manager 1 16000 16000
Sales Officers 2 8000 16000
Store Keeper 2 4000 8000
Accountant/Cashier 1 4000 4000
Clerks/Typists 2 3000 6000
Peon 1 3000 3000
Watchmen 2 3000 6000
Total A 59000



Salary (In Rs.)

Amount (In Rs.)

Production Staff
Technical Manager 1 15000 15000
Dyeing master 1 8000 8000
Supervisor 2 7000 14000
Fabric checkers 2 4000 8000
Skilled workers 8 4000 32000
Fitter 1 4500 4500
Electrician 1 4500 4500
Helpers 5 3200 16000
Boiler operator 1 6000 6000
Total B 108000
Grand Total A+ B 167000
Add perquisites @10% 16700
Total 183700

Raw Material


Qty. (Kgs.)


Amount (Rs.)

Dyes and chemicals 50,000 kgs. 25/ kg 1250000
Packing material, polythene sheet wrapping, card board boxes etc. LS LS 56000
Total 1306000




Electricity bill kWh @5/unit 100000
Water charges 9000/ ltrs. 10000
Fuel, coal and furnace oil LS 100000
Steam consumption LS 90000
Effluent treatment charges LS 20000
Total 320000

Other Contingent Expenses


Repair and maintenance 20000
Transportation and Cartage 35000
Postage and Stationery 8000
Telephone bills 10000
Insurance 17000
Sales and advertisement 20000
Miscellaneous expenses 15000
Total 125000

Total Working Capital (per month)


Salaries and wages 183700
Raw Materials 1306000
Utilities 320000
Other expenses 125000
Total 1934700

Total Capital Investment

Fixed capital 15985000
Working capital for 2 months 3869400
Total 19854400

Financial Analysis

Cost of Production (per year)


Total recurring expenditure 23216400
Depreciation on machinery @ 10% 1062500
Depreciation on Building @ 5 % 240000
Depreciation on other fixed assets @ 20% 112000
Interest on total capital investment @14% 2779616
Total 27410516

Net Profit (per year)

  Turnover – cost of production

Net Profit Ratio


Net profit (per year)× 100

Turnover (per year)

23,84,000 × 100


Percent of Profit on Total Investment


Net profit (per year) × 100

Total Investment


Break-even Point

Fixed Cost


Depreciation on building @ 5 % 240000
40% of salaries and wages 881760
40% of utilities and other expenses 2054400
Depreciation on fixed assets 1174500
Interest on total capital investment 2779616
Insurance 204000
Total 7334276

B.E.P. Fixed cost × 100
Fixed cost + Profit
= 59.51%

Addresses of Machinery and Equipment Suppliers

  • M/s. Baltex Engineering Pvt. Ltd.
    13th Floor, Jolly Maker Chambers
    No. II, Nariman Point,
  • M/s. Paramount Instruments P. Ltd.
    B-3/45, Paschim Vihar,
    New Delhi-110063
  • M/s. Erhardt Leimer India Ltd.
    43, Dr. V. B. Gandhi Road,
  • M/s. Eastern Engineering Co.
    Jeevan Udyog, II Floor, 278,
    Dr. D. N. Road, Fort,
  • M/s. Srirang Equipment Company
    472, Kamarajar Road,
  • M/s. Ludhiana Dyeing Machinery Work
    Link Road, Ludhiana
  • M/s. Kiran Dyeing Machinery Works
    Partap Nagar,
  • M/s. Electronic and Engineering Co.
    EEC House, Plot No. C-7,
    Dalia Estate, Andheri (E),
  • M/s. Venkatapathy Foundry
    445, Kamarajar Road,

Raw Material Suppliers

  • M/s. ABC Dyes and Chemicals
    2282, Gali Hinga Beg, Tilak Bazar,
  • M/s. Basf India Ltd.
    No. 7, Basant Lok, Vasant Vihar,
    New Delhi-110052
  • M/s. Arora Tex Dyes Corporation
    Plot No. 108, Sector-24,
    Faridabad-110005 (Haryana)
  • M/s. Indokem Ltd.
    3/4, Asaf Ali Road
    New Delhi-110002
  • M/s. Andhra Sugars Ltd.
    Venkatrayapuram, P. O. No. 2
    Tanuku-534211 (AP)
  • M/s. Sarocevan Dyes Mfr. Co.
    Industrial Area "A",
  • M/s. Rashmi Dyes and Chemicals
    Focal Point,

For further information please contact

Information Manager
TIMEIS Project