Thermometers (Upto 150oC)

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Product Code N. A.
Quality and Standards IS 2480:1973 General purpose solid stem glass thermometers
IS 2627:1979 Glossary of terms relating to liquid in glass thermometers
IS 4610:1968 Glass tubes for general purpose and reference thermometers
IS 4825:1968 Laboratory and reference thermometers
IS 5681:1970 General meteorological liquid in glass thermometers
IS 6274:1971 Method of calibrating liquid in glass thermometers
IS 6592:1972 Soil thermometers
Production Capacity 60,000 pieces
Value : Rs. 35,09,000
Uploaded on June 2007


Thermometer is a simple instrument to measure temperature accurately. The industrial thermometers proposed in the project profile are ‘liquid in glass thermometers' of the solid stem type or the chemical school type having flexibility in shape and purpose. These thermometers can be developed in various ranges, sizes, shapes to cope with the diversified needs to develop various industrial horizons within the International Standards.

Market Potential

With the advent of science and technology, research and development and rapid industrialisation, educational development programmes, there is a very good scope for setting up a number of small scale units covering various ranges, sizes, shapes. The industry relies on correct estimation of temperature measurements in various processes/ reactions. Industries and research laboratories require mostly thermometers ranging between - 100ºC to 500ºC. Due to expansion educational instructions with science as a basic subject being introduced from primary classes onwards, the need of thermometers between 0-110ºC and 0-150ºC ranges is fairly large.

This project is envisaged for the manufacture of different types of solid stem thermometers with temperature ranging from 0-50ºC to 0-110ºC and 0- 150ºC. These thermometers are expected to have a good market in the country in educational institutions, laboratories, R and D centres, industry etc.

Basis and Presumptions

  • Efficiency: Units for the manufacture of these thermometers can be set up in any part of the country preferably in cooler climates like hill-stations. It is proposed that the unit will work 300 days a year on a single shift basis of 8 hours a day. 75% efficiency of personnel and machinery is taken for achieving the full capacity production.
  • Time period: Within 1 year of trial production the full capacity is expected to be achieved.
  • Labour wages: Labour wages is taken at prevailing rate of market.
  • Interest rate: Taken at 13% per annum.
  • Pay back period: About 7 years.
  • Land cost: own premises.

Implementation Schedule

The project should be implemented within 6 months. The following is the time-schedule required for each activity for implementation:

Sl. No. Activity Period (in months)
l Project preparation and acquisition of sheds, provisional registration, Procurement of power and other licences 2 Months
2 Procurement of machinery, equipments, and raw materials 3 Months
3 Installation of machinery, equipment, recruitment of labour, trial run etc. 1 Months
Total 6 Months

Technical Aspects

Process of Manufacture

Raw Materials

The principal raw materials required for thermometer manufacture are capillary tubing, glass tubes and filling liquids like pure mercury.

The capillary tubing are glass tubes with fine bores. They can be of different shapes and different colours. Thermometers require tubes from 0.02 mm to 0.1 mm bore. These bores approximately correspond to 360 mm to 20 mm spirit height. The outside dia of the capillaries ranges from 1 mm to 10 mm or so. Coloured enamel is used on the back side of capillary and also the bore is made oval for making the column visible. The prismatic capillaries in red and blue back are also used.

Pure, triple-distilled mercury is required as a filling liquid. Petroleum, coloured red or blue for better visibility is also used for lower temperature.

Production technique

The manufactures of these thermometers require very skilled blowers and graduators. The quality of these thermometers depends upon the manufacturing process, the skill of the workers, use of correct machinery, following correct specifications and use of good quality raw materials.

Blowing Section

The capillaries received from factories are sorted out as per their spirit heights. It is then put in a dust proof cup-boards, so that the selection is easy and quick.

By knowing the range and type of a thermometer, the mercury length of the capillaries is accurately determined.

The bulb size is calculated using the formula

Bulb size

Scale length × 10

Mercury length

The capillaries are cut to the required sizes.

A bulb is blown at one end of the capillary by closing the other end with sealing wax. A small piece of glass tube is attached to the capillary and finally by heating a bulb is drawn neatly. The exact quantity of mercury as per the bulb size is poured into the bulb and the bulb size is marked. The mercury is then removed, the bulb is closed at the marked point.

A funnel is attached to the other end of the capillary. The bulb of the thermometer is slightly warmed to expel the air out of the bulb and the capillary. The end of the funnel with a jet is immersed in a cup of pure mercury. The mercury rises into the funnel and then the jet is sealed.

The thermometer is heated over a ribbon burner by which all the air and moisture trapped in the bulb and the capillary is driven into the funnel. By heating the funnel, a vacuum chamber is provided at the top, above the range of the thermometer. After it is made sure that the air is removed, the thermometers are put inside a bath of ice for about 10 minutes, and when the contraction of mercury is complete, the mercury thread is broken at the measured distance from the bulb. The thermometer is roughly checked at any two points in the range. The vacuum bulb is cut and top is sealed.

In vacuum process filling, the funnel need not be attached to the thermometer. By using rotary oil pump and the mercury diffusion pump, the thermometers are filled up.

Now the thermometer is ready to be sent to graduation section.

Graduation Section

The thermometers are first cleaned with clean rag and the oily substance is removed with sprit.

The thermometers are then put in different temperature baths (according to the range and sub-division) from higher temperatures to lower temperatures and adjusted avoiding parallax error.

The thermometers are then given a fine and thin coating of wax mixture leaving no space.

They are then graduated with the help of graduating machine neatly and etched with Hydrofluoric acid of 80-85% strength. The time of etching range from 60-90 seconds depending upon the type of glass and season and depth of etching needed. After etching is over, they are immersed in hot water and dewaxed thoroughly.

The graduated thermometers are then pantographed carefully after waxing again. Trade marks etc., are also pantographed. It is finally dewaxed and then a mixture of printing ink and turpentine oil is applied to the graduated portion, cleaned with a soft paper and allowed to dry.

The thermometers are finally checked at different temperatures to know the accuracy of graduation and, if found to be giving erroneous readings, rejected.

They are then packed either in wooden covers or cardboard covers and sent to the market.

The general procedure for any stem thermometer is the same. If, however, there is any special design or range or construction, it is accordingly made and finally adjusted and completed.

Quality Control and Standards

IS 2480:1973 General purpose solid stem glass thermometers
IS 2627:1979 Glossary of terms relating to liquid in glass thermometers
IS 4610:1968 Glass tubes for general purpose and reference thermometers
IS 4825:1968 Laboratory and reference thermometers
IS 5681:1970 General meteorological liquid in glass thermometers
IS 6274:1971 Method of calibrating liquid in glass thermometers
IS 6592:1972 Soil thermometers

Production Capacity (per annum)

Quantity : 54,000 Pcs. of Thermometers after 6000 Pcs rejections.
Value : Rs. 3509000

Motive Power 5 HP.

Pollution Control

Exhaust fans.

Financial Aspects

A Fixed Capital

Land and Building



Area sq. m.

Rate (Rs./ Sq.M.)

Cost (Rs.)

Workshed 50×10 500 sq. m. 3000 1500000
Office 10×5 50 sq. m. 4000 200000
Godown 10×10 100 sq. m. 3000 300000
Laboratory 5×5 25 sq. m. 5000 125000
Boundary Wall     LS 130000
Factory Gate and Watchman room     LS 105000
Total 2360000

Machinery and Equipments


Ind/ Imp.

Qty. kg.

Rate/Kg (Rs.)

Cost (Rs.)

Thermometer capillary tubing, white enamelled, round, normal glass, 6-7 mm dia, 60-80 mm spirit height Imp 40 400 16000
Normal glass tubing 3-4 mm dia with 0.2-0.3 mm wall thickness for joining bulbs Imp 5 450 2250
Mercury purified and triple distilled Imp 10 1500 15000
Petroleum filling (red and blue) in Liters Imp 4 500 2000
Thermometer capillary tubes, white enamelled, round, ordinary glass, 6-7 mm dia, 60-80 mm spirit height Ind 100 250 25000
Thermometer capillary tubing, white enamelled, round, ordinary glass, 6-7 mm dia, 50-60 mm spirit height Ind 10 250 2500
Soda glass tubing 8-10 mm dia, with 0.5 to 0.75 wall thickness Ind 5 200 1000
Total 63750
LPG cylinders (15.5 kg. Capacity each)   30 550 16500
Chemicals, waxes, printing machines, acids, rubber tubing, oils etc. 10000
Packing materials for 4500 pcs. of thermometer 9500
Total 99750

Utilities (per month)



Power 500 units @ Rs.5/- per unit 2500
Water 300
Total 2800

Other Contingent Expenses (per month)



Postage and stationery 1000
Telephone 3000
Consumable stores 1000
Repairs and maintenance 2000
Transport charges 3000
Advertisement and publicity 5000
Insurance 500
Miscellaneous expenditure 5000
Total 20500

Working Capital (i)+(ii)+(iii)+(iv) 203326
Working Capital for 2 months 406652

Total Capital Investment

Fixed capital 3308560
Working capital 406652
Total 3715212

Machinery Utilization

No bottleneck is expected during operations and 75% utilisation of machinery and manpower has been taken into consideration.

Financial Analysis

Cost of Production (per year)

Total recurring cost 2439912
Depreciation on machinery and equipment @ 10% 310856
Depreciation on building@5% 118000
Depreciation on Furnace @ 20% 26000
Depreciation on office equipments @ 20% 10000
Interest on total capital investment 13% 482977.56
Total 3387746

Sales Turnover (per year)



Net production for sales after rejection 54000 Pcs.


Qty. (Nos.)

Rate (Rs.)

Value (Rs.)

0-50º/100ºC Petroleum filled ordinary glass 6000 49 294000
0-50º/100ºC Mercury filled normal glass 500 57 28500
0-110ºC Mercury filled ordinary glass 15000 60 900000
0-110ºC Mercury filled normal glass 8000 70 560000
0-150ºC Mercury filled ordinary glass 19800 75 1485000
0-150ºC Mercury filled normal glass 4700 80 376000
Total 54000   3643500
Net Turnover (per year) 3643500

Net Profit (per year)


Turn over - Cost of production



Net Profit Ratio


Net profit per year × 100

Turn over per year



Rate of Return


Net profit per year × 100

Total investment



Break-even Point

Fixed Cost


Total Depreciation 464856
Interest on total investment 482977.56
Insurance 6000
40% of Salaries and wages 385324.8
40% of Other contingent expenses 96000
Total 1435158.36

Net Profit (per year) 255754

Fixed Cost x 100

Fixed cost + Profit



Addresses of Machinery and Equipment Suppliers


  • M/s. Brannan Thermometers
    Cleaton Moor
    Cumberland CA 225 QE.
  • M/s. Negretti and Zambia Ltd.
    Stockdale Aylesbury,
    Lbucks HP 20 IDR.
  • M/s. Taylor Instruments
    Road Gunnels, Wood Road,
    Stvenage/Herts SG Iand/EL.
  • M/s. GH Zeal Ltd.
    Loni Land, Herton,
    London SW 19300
  • M/s. L Richoux Co. (London) Ltd.
    3 Morocoo Street, South Wark
    London SEI 3 HB.

  • China
  • M/s. Fuxing
    Man Wai Street, Peaking.

  • West Germany
  • FA Armarol
    Werthien (Main),
    West Germany.
  • Fa Jucleim Thermometers Gabrik,
    West Germany.
  • Franz Guentner
    8593, Tirschenreuth,
    Franz-Holdmann Bawaria
    Street-19, West Germany.
  • M/s. Herbert Arnold, Glass Techn.
    Machinery and Apparatus,
    Weillrug Lahn, Weil Strasse-21,
    West Germany.
  • M/s. Beopple and Co. Glass Techn.
    Machinery and Apparatus,
    Giessan Lahn POB (40)
    West Germany.

  • For Vacuum Plant
  • M/s. Arthur Pfeiffer
    PO.147, West Germany.

  • Indigenous
  • M/s. Veer Workshop
    B-53, Naraina Indl. Area Phase II,
    New Delhi-110 028.
  • M/s. Japsin Products Inds.
    7, Netaji Subhash Marg,
    Darya Ganj, New Delhi-2.
  • M/s. Mohan Brothers
    Science Apparatus Workshop,
    Bengali Mohalla, Ambala Cantt.
  • M/s. Thermometers and
    Thermomatric Appliances
    F-6A, Bhagat Singh Market,
    New Delhi-1.
  • M/s. Swastika Electric and
    Scientific Works ®
    Timber Market,
    Ambala Cantt-133 001.
  • M/s. Oswal Scientific Stores
    S.C.O., 4 Sector 16-D,
    Chandigarh-160 017.
  • 7. M/s. K.G. Khosla and Co. Pvt. Ltd.
    D.G. Road, New Delhi.
  • M/s. Standard Sheet Metal Works
    Cross Road No.2, Ambala Cantt
  • M/s. Gansons Pvt. Ltd.
    207, Kalka Chamber,
    Dr. Annie Besant Road, Worli,
    Mumbai-400 018.
  • M/s. Narain Dass Jugal Kishore
    Nicholson Road, Ambala Cantt.
  • M/s. National Physical Laboratory
    Hill Side Road, New Delhi.
  • M/s. Toshniwal Bros. Pvt. Ltd.
    3E/8, Jhandewalan Extn.,
    New Delhi.
  • M/s. Vijay Bros.
    S. Ramaswamy Street
    G.T. Road, Chennai-1.

  • Muffle Furnace and Ovens
  • M/s. S.R. Electric Works
    Staff Road, Ambala Cantt.
  • M/s. Craftsman Electric Corpn. Ltd.
    Suthona Hall, Nosbit Road,
    Mazhagoan, Mumbai.
  • M/s. Thermo Electric Equipment Co.
    59, Commercial Chamber,
    Maszid Bhunder Road,
  • M/s. Hysakhi and Co.
    55, Bannerjee Street,

  • Raw Material Suppliers

    Suppliers of Thermometer Capillary and Tubing

  • M/s. Endow Sangyo Co. Ltd.
    Akamon Building, 10 Shibo
    Tharmuracho, 2-Chomo
    Minato-KV, Tokyo, Japan.
  • M/s. Terumo Corpn.
    44-1, Hatagya, 2-Chome,
    Shibuya-KU, Tokyo.
  • M/s. Japan Thermometer and
    Hydrometer Inds. Co. Ltd.
    9, Kanda Ta-cho 2-Chome
    Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo.
  • M/s. Sansei Medical Instruments Co. Ltd.
    10-9, Kika Wahigashi, 3-
    Chkome, Yodogawa-ku,
    Osaka, Japan.
  • M/s. Tajiri Industrial Co. Ltd.
    19-7, Hongo 3-Chomo
    Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo, Japan.
  • M/s. Shi Batama Scientific Co. Ltd.
    11-8, Minami Otsuka, 3 Chome,
    Toshima-Ku, Tokyo, Japan.

  • Germany
  • M/s. Jennar Glass Works, Schott
    and Gen Main Halternberg Strasse
    West Germany.
  • M/s. Glass Workwertheim, Gerate
    Fur Fissen Chaft and Technik
    Wertheim Main, West Germany.
  • M/s. Web Jena Glass Work and
    Schoot and Jen Jens
    Postamachrift Jene Post Fach,
    129, West Germany.
  • M/s. Edger Heintze
    Weilburgn Lahn
    P.O. Box No.94,
    West Germany.
  • M/s. Branin Wartheim Main
    West Germany.

  • U.K.
  • M/s. James A Jobling and Co. Ltd.
    Wear Glass Works Sunduland SR
    46 E J, Durham,
  • M/s. Whitefriers Glass Ltd.
    Wealdstone Harrow Middlesex,
  • M/s. Grainger and Thosrelfull Ltd.
    9.13, St. James St.,
    Newcastte, Upon Tyne-II, England.
  • M/s. Gallenkemps and Co. Ltd.
    Christopher Street,
    London EC 2 P 2 ER,
  • M/s. Philip Harris Ltd.
    Lynne Lane Shenstone WS 14
    DEE, England.
  • M/s. Jencons (Scientific) Ltd.
    Mark Road, Hemel Hampstead
    Herts, England.
  • M/s. R.W. Jennings and Co. Ltd.
    Scientech House Main Street,
    East Bridge Ford Nr. Norringham
    Notts, England.

  • France
  • M/s. Cristalleries Verreries
    18, Ruede Sebstopol, 18,
    Cheisyrio, Sline, France.

  • Indigenous

    Neutral Glass Tube

  • M/s. Saraikella Glass Works P. Ltd.
    PO Nagabram, Konnagharh,
    Distt. Hooghly (W.B.)

  • M/s. Borosil Glass Works
    19/90, Connaught Circus,
    New Delhi.

  • Soda Lime Glass

    Tube and Capillary

  • M/s. Ganga Glass Works
    PO. Balawali, Distt. Bijnore (UP).

  • Capillary
  • M/s. Jintan Clinical
    Surender Nagar (Gujarat).

  • Soda Lime Glass

    Tube and Capillary

  • M/s. India Optical and Scientific Glass Works
    S.N. Marg, Firozabad, (UP)
  • M/s. Manohar Glass Works
    Railway Road, Firozabad,
    Agra (UP)
  • M/s. Sun Tech Glass Works
    Agra Gate, Firozabad (UP)

For further information please contact

Information Manager
TIMEIS Project