Sanitary Ware

Product Code 94333
Quality and Standards IS 771:1963
IS 771:1979 series
IS 773 to 775
IS 2556 series
IS 2781:1964
IS 2781:1975
Uploaded on July 2007


Today sanitary wares are made from variety of materials each of them having certain advantages over the others. However, sanitary wares made of ceramic has many advantages over those made of other materials and are economical also. It has a wide acceptance in the society. The ceramic sanitary wares are used for sanitation purposes and the product ranges from washbasins, closets, urinals, sinks, baths to hoppers. It has properties like very good resistance to weathering, chemical erosion, mechanical strength and resistance to abrasion. Its use in sanitation has preference over other materials. In near future also the chance for replacing these items by other materials looks very black. They are economical, easy-to-clean, longer life and are available in pleasing colours.

Market Potential

The market for ceramic sanitary ware is very bright since its demand is increasing at a good rate. The reasons are not far to seek. The improved living standards coupled with good economic situations along with supporting Government policies for housing sector speak themselves for the demand of these products. There is large renovation activities taking place in the urban areas. All these factor ensure and creates a positive demand for these items. It is an essential and integral part of building construction in areas like housing, educational and research institutions, hospitals, industries, hotels and restaurants, cinemas and other public places.

The formation of Housing Development Finance Corporation and lucrative financial scheme of Government and private banks and asy availability of finance at low rates of interest from banks has pushed the demand of building material due to all-round growth in the building construction sector. The role of the private sector, which accounts for the lion's share of investment in housing and construction has increased and it shall remain favourable.

The demand of ceramic sanitary wares is increasing day by day in rural and urban areas due to increased construction activities and changing sanitation habits. There are around 120 small scale units with an annual capacity of around 85,000 MT. The small scale industries are manufacturing mostly white coloured opaque sanitary ware which has a large demand in the rural areas. A number of units have also started manufacturing coloured variety of sanitary ware which is in great demand not only in the urban areas but has created a good export market also. The States and Central Govt. have launched a number of house building schemes and sanitation programmes across the country, which promises a good scope for the establishment of small-scale units.

Basis and Presumptions

  • It had been taken into consideration that the unit will work on single shift basis for 300 days in a year. The firing operations are, however, to be carried out continuously on three shift basis till particular firing cycle is complete in all respects
  • To achieve full plant capacity 1-2 months trial production is required
  • Interest rate is a t 13%
  • Margin money will vary from 20- 25% depending upon the location and scheme adopted by the entrepreneurs i.e. self employment or commercial scheme.
  • Operative period of the project is around 10 years considering technology obsolescence rate and period of repayment of loan.
  • The costs of land, construction charges, cost of machinery and equipment, raw materials and consumables, salary and wages, other expenses etc. indicated in the profile are based on the prices prevailing at the time of preparation. Therefore, there are subject to necessary changes from time to time based on the local conditions.

Implementation Schedule



Survey for collection of data in respect of demand Raw material, including power and fuel availability of technology, pollution control 2nd to 2nd month
Arrangement of margin money 2nd to 3rd month
Preparation of project document and registration 2nd to 3rd month
Finance assistance 4th to 6th month
Selection of site and development of land 4th to 6th month
Make shift office     7th month
Clearance for pollution 3rd to 6th month
Electricity, fuel and water tie-up for availability 4th to 6th month
Construction of building 7th to 10th month
Identification/selection of machine     5th month
Placement of order (Machine)     6th month
Transportation and installation of machine and equipment 10th to 11th month
Selection of raw material and placement of orders     9th month
Receipt of raw material 10th to 11th month
Installation of laboratory 9th to 11th month
Trial production     12 th month

Technical Aspects

Process of Manufacture

Process of Manufacture The non-plastic raw materials like quartz, felspar and some clays are crushed and ground to required fineness. They are unloaded in an agitator where more clay is added as per composition. The slip is screened, magnetized and kept in an agitating tank with addition of required flocculents. The wares are cast in plaster moulds. The wares are dried and finished and are kept on open racks for drying. The dried wares are tested for cracks and then applied glaze by spraying. It is then loaded in the kilns for firing at a temperature of about 1260OC. After firing they are sorted out and packed for sale.

Quality Control and Standards

The Bureau of Indian Standards has formulated and published the following specifications for maintaining the quality of the product and testing.

IS 771 1963
IS 771 1979 Series
IS 773  to 775
IS 2556 Series
IS 2781 1964
IS 2789 1975

Production Capacity (per annum)

Quantity 1,200 M.T.
Value Rs. 25200000

Motive Power      95 HP.

Pollution Control

In this projects shuttle/tunnel kiln is recommended which is fuel efficient and hence comparatively non-polluting, however dust collecting equipment need be installed on crushing machine and the furnace be fitted with retrofitting for removal of obnoxious waste. The unit should obtain No Objection Certificate from State Pollution Control Board.

Energy Conservation

This industry needs energy conservation in fuel as well as in electricity. Ceramic fibre lined shuttle kiln proposed in the project profile is fuel efficient and the latest modern kiln which conserves fuel energy when compared with conventional ceramic D.D. kilns. Simple precautions and knowledge of effective utilization of electric power need be practiced.

Financial Aspects

A. Fixed Capital

(i) Land and Building


Land 2400 sq.mtrs. @ Rs.2000 per 4800000
Office, stores, laboratory 300 @ Rs.3500 per sq. mtr. 1050000
Working shed 900 @ Rs.3000 per 2700000
Total 8550000

(ii) Machinery and Equipments


Qty. Nos.

Price (Rs.)

Ball mill size 6ftx6ft complete with porcelain lining and grinding media with 1.0 HP motor 2 400000
Ball mill size 3ftx3ft complete with porcelain lining grinding media with 5 HP motor 4 400000
Agitator vat dia 10.5 ft and height 10.5 ft. Complete with 5 HP motor 3 120000
Slurry pump cap.1000 ltrs. Per hr. with 5 HP motor 1 30000
Magnetic seperator of permanent type 1 10000
Spray booths complete with complete with air compressor spray guns etc. 4 60000
Testing Laboratory equipments and apparatus L.S. 40000
Ceramic fibre lined, shuttle kilns, oil fired, capacity 5 tonnes complete with firing system, loading cars and setters etc. with one extra car each 3 3600000
Oil pipe fitting for furnace L.S. 80000
Oil storage tank and pre heating system L.S. 60000
Deepwell pump set with over- head storage tank (2 HP) L.S. 100000
Installation and erection charges L.S. 80000
Drying racks and working table, slurry container etc. L.S. 250000
Office equipment and furniture L.S. 100000
Total cost of machinery and equipment 5330000
(iii) Pre-operative (project deposits etc. and other unforeseen expenses) L.S. 1,00,000 cost, non-refundable,
Total fixed capital(i+ii+iii) 13980000

B. Working Capital (per month)

(i) Personnel (per month)



Salary / (Rs.)

Total (Rs.)

Manager(Ceramist) 1 15000 15000
Supervisor 5 8000 40000
Accountant 1 8000 8000
Store keeper 1 6000 6000
Clerk / Typist 3 4000 12000
Skilled workers 8 5000 40000
Semi skilled workers 10 4500 45000
Un-skilled workers 30 3000 90000
Watchman/peon 3 3000 9000
Total     265000
22% of salary 58300
Total 323300

(ii) Raw Materials Including Packing Requirements (per month)


Qty. (tons)

Rate Rs (MT)

Value (Rs.)

China clay 13 2000 26000
Ball clay/fire clay 40 800 32000
Felspar powder 30 1400 42000
Quartz powder 25 1800 45000
Plaster of paris 8 2000 16000
Other colours and chemicals L.S.   15000
Packing material LS   16000
Total 192000

(iii) Utilities (per month)


Power 13166 kWH unit @ Rs. 5.00 per unit   65830
Water LS 2500
Fuel furnace oil 35 kilo ltr @ Rs.30'000/kt.ltr.   1050000
Kiln furniture LS 20000
Total   1138330

(iv) Other Contingent Expenses (per month)


Postage and stationery 2000
Telephone 3000
Consumable stores 10000
Repair and Maintenance 10000
Advertisement and publicity 20000
Insurance 4000
Misc. expenditure 10000
Total 59000

Total Recurring Expenditure (per month) 1712630
Total Working Capital (2 months basis) 3425260

Total Capital Investment

Fixed capital 13980000
Working capital 3425260
Total 17405260

Machinery Utilization

Ball mill 80% (on the basis of 24 hours working in a day)

Agitator 100% (on the basis of 24 hours working in a day)

Financial Analysis

Cost of Production (per annum)


Total recurring cost 20551560
Depreciation on building @ 5% 427500
Depreciation on machinery and equipment @ 10% 130000
Depreciation on kilns @ 20% 720000
Depreciation on drying racks, hand tools Working tables etc. @ 25% 62500
Depreciation on office equipment @ 20% 20000
Interest on total capital investment @ 13% 2262683.8
Total 24174243.8

Turnover (per year)



Rate per ton

Value (Rs.)

Sanitary ware I quality 600 MT 28000 16800000
Sanitary ware II quality 600 MT 22000 13200000
Total 30000000

Net Profit (per year)


Turnover (per year) – Cost of production


Net Profit Ratio


Net profit x 100


5825756.2 x 100



Rate of Return


Net profit x 100


5825756.2 x 100



Break-even Point

Fixed Cost


Depreciation 1360000
Interest on total investment 2262683.8
Insurance 48000
40% of salary and wages 1551840
40% of other contingent expenses excluding insurance 264000
Total 5486523.8



Fixed cost x 100

Fixed cost + Profit

5486523.8 x 100

5486523.8+ 5825756.2


Additional Information

The scheme has been calculated with capital of 4 M.T. production per day. Since it is economical to purchase powdered quartz and felspar the same has been adopted.

Addresses of Machinery Suppliers

  • M/s. Amic Industries (P) Ltd.
    85-D, Dr. Suresh Sicar Road,
  • M/s.Gidwaney Brothers
    73, Netaji Subash Road,
  • M/s.Saboo Engg. Works
    Kuchaman Road- 341509
  • M/s. Perfect machine Tools Corporation
    1, Smith Road, Chennai-1
  • M/s. St.Vincent Industries
    Convent Road, Kolkata
  • M/s. Jaycee Traders
    12, Gitanjali,
    1st Floor, P.B. No.378,
  • M/s. Bengal Lion Ind. Furnace Ltd.
    D-828, New Friends Colony,
    New Delhi-110066
  • M/s.Sharma Kiln Technology (P) Ltd. 4, Gujarati House,
    Opp. Victoria Garden,
    Lal Darwaja,
    Ahmedabad – 380001
  • M/s. Unifire
    16-13 Shakespere Sarani
    4th Floor, Kolkata 700071

Raw Material Suppliers

  • M/s. Wolkam(P) Ltd.
    Mewar Ind. Estate, P.B. No.21,
    Udaipur (Rajasthan)
  • M/s. Multani Minerals
    Station Road,
  • M/s.Tahla Ram and Sons,
    Bikaner, (Rajasthan)
  • M/s. Oriental Prespating Co.
    1880/2, Opp. Desai Pot,
    Khadra, Ahmedabad
  • M/s. Ompura Parn Shankar and Sons
    Thangadh, Dist. Surendranagar (Gujarat)
  • M/s. United Minerals Ltd.
    Comm. Building
    102-E, Netaji Subash Road,
  • M/s. Ferro Castings and Colours Ltd.
    Post Joka 24, Paraganas
  • M/s. Udar Enterprises
    1, Gandhi Road,
    Salem - 676007

Shuttle Kiln Fabricators

  • M/s. Unifire
    Shakespere, 16-12, Sarani,
    4th Floor, Kolkata
  • M/s. Bengallium Industrial Funales
    24-B, Carmae Street,
    Kolkata - 700 016
  • M/s. Techno Thermo Projects Pvt. Ltd.
    225/2, C.I.T. Road, Scheme VII-M,
    Kolkata - 700 054
  • M/s. N.M. Kiln Pvt. Ltd.
    A-706, Rail Vihar, Seetu
    15-11, Jharza Road,
    Gurgaon - 122 001
  • M/s. Sharma Kiln Technology
    206, Hare Krishna Complex,
    Opp. Kottawala Flats,
    Ashram Road,
    Ahmedabad - 380 007
  • M/s. Associated Industrial Furnaces
    2/5, Sarai Julane, 1st Floor,
    Okhla Road,
    New Delhi - 110 025

For further information please contact

Information Manager
TIMEIS Project