Glass Mirror

Product Code 94162 and 94180
Quality and Standards IS 3438:1979
IS 6184:1979
Uploaded on May 2007


Glass Mirrors are made of good quality plate/sheet glass of different thickness varying from 2 mm to 7 mm. It is coated chemically on one side to give the desired reflection. The need of these mirrors is increasing with the increase of population, hotels, restaurants, Hair dressing saloons, railways, vehicles and other household decorations etc. It is popularly used for looking purpose by one and all.

Market Potential

In view of the utility of mirrors, it is considered an important and essential item without which one cannot imagine modern life. It is roughly estimated that there are around 325 registered units producing mirrors by hand pouring simple machines. These types of units are artisans in nature which are mostly engaged in decoration of glass. The production capacity of all these SSI units put together is estimated approximately at 7.2 million sq. meters per annum.

The demand of these mirrors is increasing day by day due to its use in building construction decoration and export to the neighboring countries. The mirrors are largely consumed by Fancy shops, Jewellary shops, Hotels, Bars, Saloons, Furniture manufacturers, tailoring shops, theatres, show-rooms, household, Railways, Automobiles industry etc. The gap between demand and supply is estimated approximately at 10% in the country. It is an essential item in each and every house. Being fragile it enjoys good replacement market also. There is good demand of the product for export market in the neighbouring countries and far-east countries.

There is a good scope for ancillarisation of the mirror industry to support large industries like Railways, Automobile, Defence. Automobiles can buy semi-finished items from the smallscale sector. Hence there is a good scope to set up glass mirror industry in SSI sector.

Basis and Presumptions

  • The unit will work on a single shift basis for 300 working days in a year.
  • The unit can achieve its full production in the first year itself.
  • Labour and wages are taken as per the prescribed minimum wages of the Govt. rates.
  • Interest calculation is taken @ 13% for both fixed and working capital of total investment.
  • Margin Money is considered @ 10-25% depending upon the locations and scheme adopted by the entrepreneurs.
  • The operative period of the project is around 10 years.
  • The costs of land, construction charges, machinery and equipments, raw materials and consumables, other contingent
  • expenses are taken as per the prices prevailing in the market at the time of project preparation.

Implementation Schedule

Sl. No. Activity Period
Starting Completion    
1 Market Survey of data collection in respect of demand, raw material, power, fuel, Machinery and Technology etc. 0 to 1st Month
2 Preparation of Project document and registration 1st to 2nd Month
3 Arrangement for margin money financial assistance 3rd to 5th Month
4 Selection of site and land development, construction of make shift office etc. 4th to 5th Month
5 Selection of machines, electricity, fuel and water and clearance for pollution 5th to 6th Month
6 Placement of order for machine, transportation and installation of machine and equipment etc. 6th to 8th Month
7 Selection of raw material and placement of orders 7th to 7th Month
8 Receipt of raw material 8th to 9th Month
9 Trial Production   10th Month

Technical Aspects

Process of Manufacture

Selection of Glass Sheet/Plate

The best quality of mirror is obtained by silvering plate glass which produces true and undisturbed image due to its high polish, flatness and uniform thickness. If sheet glass is used instead, true reflection is not possible because of characteristic surface waviness of the glass even though it is of the highest grade. It is generally used for making small mirrors only. While selecting sheet glass for mirroring, it is particularly important to see that the central portion which would be directly in the line of sight, should be free from defects as far as possible. Depending on the quality of plate or sheet glass used, where defects are accentuated by silvering, various grade of mirrors are produced.

Cleaning of Glass

If the surface of glass has been left exposed to the atmosphere for a long time, it gets hydrolyzed and also coated with film of dust, oil grease and metal salts. In each cases an adherent and uniform layer of silver is formed only after proper cleaning of the glass surface. For this purpose, the surface is treated with an organic solvent like, alcohol, ether and Carbon tetrachloride or with an alkaline solutions such as sodium hydroxide and sodium phosphate, sulphuric acid and nitric acid etc. which make the surface suitable for adherence of silvering.

This cleaning is done by using absorbent cotton of sufficient thickness rapped on a glass spatula or rod soaked with pure HNO3 and distilled water. The entire surface is properly cleaned and rinsed off by using ordinary water followed by distilled water.

Sensitizing the Glass

Sensitizing makes the surface active for attracting the silver metal to form a quick adhering and uniform film. It is done by treating the surface of the glass sheet with stannous chloride solution after properly cleaning the glass.

Stannous chloride performs two functions in the manufacturing of the silver mirrors

  • It speeds up the precipitation of metallic silver from a silver solution, and
  • It increases the adherence of silver to glass surface.

Application of sensitizing solution to the glass surfaces can be done by: (i) Pouring, (ii) Spraying with spray gun, (iii) Immersing the surface into sensitizing solution. One minute is sufficient for sensitizing the glass surface.

Protective Coating on Silvered Surface of the Mirror

The durability and life of silver coating is backed by protective backing paint. The finished mirror is fit to withstand, atmospheric corrosion of the silver film due to diffusion of moisture or glass through the lacquer. Shellac type paints followed by relatively low oxidizing top coats are normally used by spray gun. Due to its excellent adhesion, it is still in use by some mirror makers. It is applied directly on the silver film or on the copper coated silver. However, due to the bottleneck of shellac, it is applied on this film and a white lead paint covers it for further protection.

Silvering Solution

Several compositions for the preparation of silvering solutions are known, each having its own speciality. Besides the composition of silvering solution, other factors like temperature, time, light, amount of silver per unit area, and surface chemistry of glass influences the formation of the silvered mirror. A typical formulation of silver solution is given below:

Solution C: Sugar Solution

Dissolve 2.5 gm of sugar in 25 ml of distilled water and add 1 ml drop of conc. HNO3 (Conc. Rs. Nitric acid 1.42) and the solution is heated for 5 minutes and then cooled slowly.

Solution B : Silver Nitrate Solution

  • 1 gm of KOH is dissolved in 25 ml of distilled water glass in a bottle.
  • 1 gm of AgNO3 to 25 ml of distilled water in a separate glass bottle.

Then the solution (i) and (ii) are mixed and Ammonium Hydroxide Solution is added drop wise to form clear solution.

Solution A

.0.25 gms of Sncl2 is dissolved in 25 ml distilled water.

Sensitization of glass surface is carried out by pouring/spraying of Sncl3 solution on the surface of cleaned glass.

The silver nitrate solution mixed with sugar solution in the ratio of 2:1 is poured on the horizontal surface of glass in a dim light room. Excess water is removed after drying lead oxide protection coating is applied.

Quality Control and Standards

The following specifications have been formulated and published by the Bureau of Indian Standards, for guidance in maintenance of the quality of the product:

IS 3438:1977 Silvered Glass Mirror for general purpose (First revision)
IS 6184:1971 Specification for furniture Mirror. (re-affirmed - 1987)

Production Capacity (Per annum)

Quantity : 12, 000 sq. metres
Value : Rs. 4236000

Motive Power 20 HP.

Pollution Control

There is not much pollution in this industry. However, there should be proper arrangement for exhaust in spray booth, drainage for used water from the unit. It is advisable for the operator to use goggles to protect his eyes while handling the silver solution. The used water should be collected in a cement tank with proper arrangements for removal of such water at regular intervals.

Energy Conservation

This industry uses only electric power. Simple precautions and knowledge of effective utilisation of electric power could save energy.

Financial Aspects

A Fixed Capital

Land and Building


Rate (Rs.)

Value (Rs.)

Land 300 sq. mtr. Building @ Rs.2000 per 600000
Workshop 100 @ Rs. 3000 per 300000
Office 35 sq. mtr. @ Rs. 4000 per sq. mtr. 140000
Total 1040000

Machinery and Equipments

Particular items

Qty. (Nos.)

Amount (Rs.)

Amount (Rs.)

Automatic levelling machine 1 No. 900000 900000
Surface Polishing machine -do- 100000 100000
Bevel polishing machine -do- 10000 10000
Spray gun with air Compressor (3 HP motor) -do- 20000 20000
Drilling machine 1 set 10000 10000
Cost of tools and equipment      
a) Diamond drill bits 6 Nos. L.S. 35000
b) High Carbon drill bits 12 Nos.    
c) Diamond Cutters 5 Nos.    
d) Circular Cutters 1 No.    
Furniture and fixtures L.S. 50000
Execution Electrification and Installation charges @ 10% of Machinery and Equipments L.S. 112500
Total 1237500
Preliminary and Pre-operative expenses like deposits, project cost (non-refundable) and other unforeseen expenditure) L.S. 80000
Total 1317500
Total Fixed Capital (i+ii+iii) 2357500

Working Capital (Per Month)

Salary and Wages (per month)



Salary month (Rs.)

Total (Rs.)

Manager 1 10000 10000
Accountant 1 7000 7000
Clerk-cum-typist 1 6500 6500
Peon-cum-watchman 1 3000 3000
Skilled workers 2 5000 10000
Semi-skilled workers 4 4500 18000
Un-skilled workers 2 3000 6000
Total 60500
Add perquisites @ 22% of salary and wages 13310
Total 73810

Raw Materials (per month)


Qty. (Sq. metre)

Rate (Rs.)

Value (Rs.)

Glass sheet/plate 2 mm 300 140 42000
Glass sheet/plate 3 mm 300 180 54000
Glass sheet/plate 4 mm 200 220 44000
Glass sheet/plate 5.0 mm 200 260 52000
Chemical, paints and various items etc. 3000 L.S. 70000
Total 262000

Utilities (per month)



Value (Rs.)

Power 3000 kWH 15000
Water L.S 600
Total 15600

Other Contingent Expenses (per month)


Value (Rs.)

Postage and Stationery 2000
Telephone 3000
Consumable Store 5000
Repair and Maintenance 5000
Advertisement 4000
Insurance 2500
Misc. Expenditure 5000
Total 26500
Total recurring Cost(i+ii+iii+iv) per month 377910

Total Capital Investment (Rs.)

Fixed capital 2357500
Working Capital (2month basis) 755820
Total 3113320

Financial Analysis

Cost of Production (per annum)

Total recurring cost 4534920
Depreciation on building @ 5% 52000
Depreciation on Machinery and Equipments @ 10% 118750
Furniture and Fixtures @ 20% 10000
Interest on Total capital investment @ 13% 404731.6
Total 5120401.6

Turnover (per annum)

Particular items

Qty. (Mtrs)

Rate (sq.mtrs.)


2 mm Silvered glass Mirror 3600 400 1440000
3 mm Silvered glass Mirror 3600 450 1620000
4 mm Silvered glass Mirror 2400 515 1236000
5 mm Silvered glass Mirror 2400 580 1392000
Total 5688000

Net profit per year

Total Sales receipt

Cost of Production


5268000 -5120401.6 567598.4

Profit on Sale Ratio


Net profit × 100

Turn over per year


567598.4 x 100



Rate of Return Ratio


Net Profit per year × 100

Total Capital investment


567598.4 x 100



Break-even Point

Fixed Cost


Depreciation on Building 52000
Depreciation on machinery and equipment 118750
Interest on total capital investment 404731.6
Depreciation on furniture and fixture 10000
40% of salary and wages 354288
Insurance 30000
40% of contingent expenses 115200
Total 1084969.6


Fixed Cost x 100

Fixed cost + Net Profit


1084969.6 x 100

1084969.6 + 567598.4



Addresses of Machinery and Equipment Suppliers

  • 1. M/s. Bando Trading Co. Ltd.
    Tokashime, 770,
    (For automatic bevelling machine Model - B-10)
  • 2. M/s. Narang Glass and Frame Industries
    2-1-77, Ridge Hyderabad - 2
    (For mirror bevelling and edge cutting machine small type)
  • 3. M/s. General Glass Machinery (P) Ltd.
    F-13, Shanti Kunj, Sadhu Vishwani Road,

  • Raw Material Suppliers

  • 1. M/s. Carborandum Universal Ltd.
    52/53, Jahangir Street,
    Chennai - 600 001.
    (For grinding media and wheels)
  • 2. M/s. Kilburn and Co.
    Mount Road,
    Chennai - 600 002
  • 3. M/s. Indo-Ashali Glass Co. Ltd.
    Bhuru Kunda, P.O. Bhadani Nagar,
    Distt. Hazaribagh, Jharkhand
    (For Sheet/plate glass)
  • 4. M/s. Triveni Sheet Glass Ltd.
    Naini, Allahabad (UP)
  • 5. M/s. Hindustan Pilkington Glass Industries
    Asansol, (West Bengal)
  • 6. M/s. Seraikells glass works (P) Ltd.
    41, Hazra Road,
    Kolkata - 700 010.
  • 7. M/s. Haryana Sheet Glass Ltd.
    F-24, Desh Bandhu Gupta
    Market, Surindra Mansion,
    Karol Bagh,
    New Delhi - 110 005.

Addresses of Raw Material Suppliers

  • M/s. Indian Petrochemicals Corpn. Ltd.
    P.O. Petrochemicals,
    Distt. Vadodara
    Gujarat - 391346
  • M/s. Tamilnadu Petro Products Ltd.
    Manali, Tamilnadu
  • M/s. Reliance Industries Ltd.
  • M/s. Dharamsi Morarji Chemical Limited
    317/21, Dr. D. N. Road,
    Fort, Mumbai-1.

For further information please contact

Information Manager
TIMEIS Project