Fire Clay Bricks and Blocks

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Product Code 29105, 529107, 29111 and 29112
Quality and Standards N.A.
Production Capacity: Qty. May 2007


Fire clay refractories are commonest of all refractories. Fire clay refractories containing less than 40% alumina are classified into: (1) Medium heat duty, and (2) High heat duty fire clay refractories with alumina content of over 30% but below 40%. Fireclay refractories are made into bricks and blocks of various standard sizes and shapes and also as per specific requirement of user industries.

Market Potential

Fire clay refractory products are used by almost every industry, which has heat processing in the production process Iron and steel, cement, petrochemicals, sugar, non-ferrous metal, glass and ceramic industries are some of the user industries. Iron and Steel industries account for 75% of the consumption of refractories. Thus, the demand for refractories is dependent on the growth of iron and steel industries in the country.

Basis and Presumptions

Efficiency: 75% efficiency of manpower and machinery is considered. It is envisaged that the kiln will run its complete cycle uninterrupted, pressing operations for 3 shifts a day and other operations on a single shift of 8 hours and for 300 days in a year.

Time Period: Full capacity utilisation is expected to be achieved within one year from the commencement of production.

Labour Wages: The minimum applicable wages are taken into account.

Interest Rate: 13% per annum on total investment is taken into account.

Margin Money: 25% of the total investment may be brought in by the promoters.

Pay Back Period: About 3½ years.

Land Cost and Construction Cost:

a) Land Cost: Rs. 2000 per

b) Construction Cost: Office and stores: Rs 5000 per and Working shed: Rs. 5000 per

Implementation Schedule


Period(in months)

Selection of site Provisional registration from DIC 2
Availability of finance Construction of building Procurement of Machinery and Equipment Availability of Electrical Power Erections and Commissioning 4
Recruitment of manpower Trial runs and commencement commercial production 2
Total implementation period 8

Technical Aspects

Process of Manufacture

Raw Materials: Fire clays of both plastic and non-plastic varieties, refractory grog (broken fire bricks) and other high alumina minerals like kyanite, sillimanite and bauxite are the raw materials for making fire clay bricks and blocks.

Processing: Fire clays, plastic clays, non plastic materials like grog and other high alumina materials are procured in powdered form. Non plastic materials are screened in vibratory screen into various particle sizes, viz., coarse, medium, and fine varieties. The finely ground fire clays and non-plastic materials of various particle sizes are mixed in suitable proportions to form a batch. The batch is added into the Muller mixer. The addition of water is varied to form consistent mixture either for dry or semi dry pressing in the case of standard size fire clay bricks or for pneumatic ramming in the case of fire clay blocks and special shapes.

Drying: While dry pressed fire clay bricks are ready for stacking in the kiln for firing with little or no drying time, fire clay blocks and special shapes moulded by pneumatic ramming and hand moulding are loaded into the kiln only after being allowed for sufficient drying.

Firing: Likewise any other refractories, pre-determined timetemperature cycle is followed for firing of fire clay bricks and blocks 1350ºC–1400ºC being the optimum firing temperature.

Quality Control and Standards

The Bureau of Indian Standards has formulated and published the following specifications on various chemical porcelain for guidance and maintenance of the quality of the product:

IS 1526 Sizes and shapes for fire clay bricks (230 mm series)
IS 5459 Sizes and shapes for fire clay blocks (300 mm and higher series)
IS 6 Moderate heat duty fire clay refractories, Group-A
IS 8 High heat duty fire clay refractories
IS 4041 Glossary of terms relating to refractory materials.

Production Capacity (per annum)

Quantity Fireclay Bricks and Blocks: 550000 Nos.
Value 24300000

Motive Power 50 HP.

Pollution Control

Cyclonic dust collectors, exhaust and combustion control are required to be installed with the machineries.

Energy Conservation

Provided in the estimate for oil fired kiln. It is envisaged that appropriate furnace insulation brick/ceramic fibre curing and fuel efficient combustion system will be incorporated in the kiln.

Financial Aspects

A. Fixed Capital

Land and Building


Sq. Metres

Rate (Rs.)

Value (Rs.)

Land 2500 2000 5000000
Built-up Area Office and Stores 100 5000 500000
Workshed 600 5000 3000000
Total     8500000

Machinery and Equipments


Imp/ Ind.

Qty. (Nos.)

Rate (Rs.)

Value (Rs.)

Production Unit
Vibrating screen with 3 HP motor and other accessories Ind. 1 33000 33000
Double shaft U-Mixer (capacity: 2 tons per shift) with 10 HP motor and other accessories Ind. 1 90000 90000
Muller mixer (pan size 6'dia) with 10 HP motor and other accessories Ind. 1 105000 105000
Frictional screw press (150 tonnes) with 20 HP motor and other accessories Ind. 1 700000 700000
Oil fired kiln (45-50 cubic meters) complete with chimney, oil storage tank, compressed air and oil supply and pre-heating system and 4-6 burners Ind. 1 1300000 1300000
Pneumatic rammers Ind. 4 25000 25000
Total 2328000
Testing Equipment
CCS testing machine Ind. 1 45000 45000
RUL Machine     200000 200000
Muffle furnace Ind. 1 220000 220000
Drying oven Ind. 1 50000 50000
Shaking equipment Sieve Ind. 1 30000 30000
Misc. lab. Items Ind. LS 30000 30000
Total       575000
Electrification and installation charges @ 10% of cost of machinery and equipment 290300
Total cost of machinery and equipment 3193300
Cost of moulds, tools and other fixtures 200000
Cost of office equipment/working tables etc. 200000
Pre-operative Expenses 60000
Total fixed capital 3653300

Working Capital (per month)

Personnel (per month)



Salary / (Rs.)

Total (Rs.)

Administration and Supervisory
Manager 1 8000 16000
Supervisor 2 7000 14000
Salesman 1 8000 8000
Clerk 2 5000 10000
Watchman 2 3000 6000
Technical: Skilled and Semi or Unskilled
Skilled workers 10 5000 50000
Unskilled workers 15 4000 60000
Technician (Mechanical) 1 6000 6000
Total Salaries 164000
Perquisites @ 22% of salaries 36080
Total 200080

Raw Materials


Imp/ Ind


Rate (Rs.)

Value (Rs.)

Fire clays Ind. 150 T 1500/ton 225000
High alumina grog " 60 T 2000/ton 120000
Kyanite/ sillimanite " 40 T 8000/ton 320000
Total       665000

Utilities (per month)


Furnace oil or LDO: 20 kL @ Rs. 35000 per kL 700000
Power: 2300 kWH @ Rs. 5.00 per kWH 11500
Water: 200 KL @ Rs. 25.00 per kL 5000
Total 716500

Other Contingent Expenses (per month)


Value (Rs.)

Postage, stationery, telephone, taxes 7000
Consumables, repairs and maintenance 10000
Transport charges 10000
Advertisement and Publicity and sales expenses 5000
Misc. expenditure 5000
Insurance 2000
Total cost of Contingent expenses 39000
Total Recurring Expenditure per month 1620580
Total Working Capital (on 2 months basis) 3241160

Total Capital Investment

Fixed Capital 11693300
Working Capital 3241160
Total 14934460

Total Capital Investment

Fixed capital 18331400
Working capital 2923440
Total 21254840

Machinery Utilization

Machinery utilization of 75 percent has been considered in the project.

Financial Analysis

Cost of Production (per year)


Value (Rs.)

Total recurring cost 19446960
Depreciation on building @ 5% 425000
Depreciation on kiln @ 20% 260000
Depreciation on moulds and tools @ 25% 50000
Depreciation on Machinery and Equipment @ 10% 102800
Depreciation on testing equipment and office equipment at 20% 155000
interest on capital investment at 13% 1941479.8
Total 22381239.8

Turnover (per year)



Rate (Rs.)

Value (Rs.)

Medium Heat Duty Fireclay Refractories 1200 tons    
Fireclay Bricks 150000 Nos 30 4500000
Fireclay Blocks 100000 Nos. 60 6000000
High Heat Duty Fireclay Refractories 1600 tons    
Fireclay Bricks 200000 Nos. 35 7000000
Fireclay Blocks 100000 Nos. 68 6800000
Total 24300000


  Sales – cost of production

Net Profit (per year)


Rs. 24300000 – 22381239.8


Net Profit Ratio


Net profit per year x 100

Sales Turnover per year

1918760.2x 100



Rate of Return


Net profit per year x 100

Total Capital investment

1918760.2× 100



Break-even Point (% of Total Production Envisaged)

Fixed Cost (per year)


Value (Rs.)

Total Depreciations 992800
Interest on total investment 1941479.8
Insurance 24000
40% of salaries and wages 960384
40% of other contingent expenses (excluding insurance) 177600
Total 4096263.8

Net profit (per year) 1918760.2



Fixed Cost × 100

Fixed Cost + Net Profit

4096263.8 x 100

4096263.8 +1918760.2

4096263.8 x 100



Addresses of Machinery and Equipment Suppliers

  • M/s. Amic Industries (P) Ltd.
    10, BT Road,
    Kolkata-700 036.
  • M/s. Hindustan Engineering Co.
    1 and 3/7, Gopalal Tagore Road,
    Kolkata-700 035.
  • M/s. Keshab Machinery (Pvt.) Ltd.
    Bose Park, Sukchar,
    24 Parganas, (West Bengal)
  • M/s. Simplicity Engineers (Pvt.) Ltd.
    LB-99, Mayapuri,
    New Delhi-110 064.
  • M/s. Wesman Thermal Engg. Process Pvt. Ltd.
    269, 18th Main Road,
    RMV Extension,
    Bangalore-560 080.
  • M/s. Cerakiln Consultants
    No. 1, 9th Main, 30th Cross,
    BSK II Stage,
    Bangalore-560 050.

Raw Material Suppliers

  • M/s. Mysore Minerals Ltd.
    39, M G Road,
    Bangalore-560 001.
  • M/s. Maruthi Enterprises
    LF 13/9, 4th Main,
    BTM Layout, II Stage,
    Bangalore-560 076.
  • M/s. Mineral Processing Industry
    Plot No. 180, III Phase, 11th Main,
    Peanya Indl. Area,
    Bangalore-562 140.

For further information please contact

Information Manager
TIMEIS Project